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host: florida, republican line. caller: i find it very distressing that people are talking about something they know very little about. the reason for the electoral college is that our farmers set up a system that rested onpeople people in the house of representatives. we had to have popular participation in the government but had to be limited. the states have a representative in the senate. they are also represented it in voting for the presidency. we have too much democracy going on. bending to the whims of the people in the house, and you want to propose the same system that brought in the election of the president? no, we cannot do that. the republic is on its knees. if we go to the popular vote with the president, there will be a bullet in the back of the head of our republic.
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that will finish us. >> we have some votes to switch to the popular vote system but now we have the opposite position. the caller points to how the electoral college came into being. the framers really did not -- were not very wary of the national popular vote and wanted to fashion a compromise between people who supported that and people who wanted the congress to elect a president. this was kind of seemed as a compromise between the two positions. host: has there been an effort to change the way we things we do things, as far as the alleged role college is concerned? guest: to my knowledge, a last effort to abolish that was 1979. it came far short of the two- thirds majority to clear a constitutional amendment in the senate. that happened three years after
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the 1976 election, which was a lot closer than most remember. there were 20 states between jimmy carter and gerald ford that were decide within five points. as hard as that is to imagine today in this era of 849 twin states. in the house, there was a vote in 1969 to abolish the a lot for college, and that passed overwhelmingly. that came after the election between richard nixon, hubert humphrey, and george wallace. host: here is statesboro, georgia. go ahead. i'm sorry, wrong button. joe in massachusetts. independent line. caller: my question is, was not the preen -- the supreme court premature when it made its decision in the 2000 election?
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guest: that is not my area of expertise, so i'm afraid i cannot help you there. host: character as bigger question about the electoral college? caller: i thought the rules already in place, that if there was a disagreement, that the votes would have gone to the house anyway. about the supreme court intervening. my comment is, is it not possible that the house could pick romney and the senate could make obama the president? >> if the vote for president went to the house of representatives, we have presumed the majority of delegations the republican would vote for mitt romney. the senate would pick the vice- president, but they would have to select among the candidates with the most electoral votes for vice president. i could be wrong, but i do not think the senate would vote for obama.
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i do not think he would accept it either. >> a question on twitter. did the founding fathers believed that both people were not informed enough to become president? guest: one of the reasons they decided to go with the electorate, and they envision the people as learned citizens, well respected in their community, but i think they felt the average voter probably was not sophisticated enough to be entrusted with voting directly for president. host: what will you be watching for tonight? guest: i will be watching for a lot of these swing states and battleground states, some of these places with early poll closing times like virginia, new hampshire, florida, to see if there is any changes in the data. we have covered this extensively for the last couple of years.
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i think there is a lot of interest in what occurs tonight. host: thank you for your time. >> it is election day and we are at fire station 10 in arlington, va., just outside of the nation's capital. heavy turnout in leading to long lines at polling places across the state. the state board of elections said that lines are being processed efficiently. only minor issues being reported.
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>> in the end of a pretty long line in arlington, va., at a
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polling site. william lee looking at polling stations throughout the day. looking at a couple of tweets. rebecca says that the romney and ryan campaigns have arrived. some of the baht from political reporters. we have been speaking to campaign and political reporters for their take on election day.
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>> i will watch the state's closing the earliest in the east. we will know what is happening in the election pretty early on. states like ohio and virginia, two of the most critical states in the election, the polls close at 7:00. we will have a pretty good sense early on what is happening. in those states, i would watch hamilton county in ohio, the home of cincinnati. this is a county that george bush won in 2004, barack obama in 2008. a pretty good bellwether. if governor romney is winning there, we know he will be very competitive. he has a shot to win ohio and therefore a shot to win the presidency. if president obama is carrying hamilton again, that will be indicative of a good night for the democrats. in virginia, i would keep an eye on their backs county, the big county in northern virginia. home to probably a fifth of the
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state's residents. president obama should win fairfax, but it is the question of the margin. if governor romney can cut into that margin, he has a good chance to carry the commonwealth. >> do you have your eye on any other specific states? >> ohio and virginia will be very telling. florida has a few counties on the pan and lower the polls do not close until one hour later. as we recall from the famous 2000 presidential elections, it is a cliche, but that interstate 4 corridor is important.
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keep an eye on hillsboro. like hamilton county in ohio, a good bellwether as to what is happening in the race. if president obama is winning there again, he has a good chance to win florida. if governor romney is winning, it tells us something about where florida is going. i would also watch the counties around orlando. is it down to levels in 2008? >> what could surprise you on election night? >> it it is plausible but not possible that we will have a severe where president obama when the electoral votes but not the popular vote. in states he has done been contesting, the races have got closer. michigan, minnesota, offensive in yet. these so-called organic states where there has not been much competition, the race has tightened. when you combine that with states in the deep south, who will probably go for president -- governor romney, even more so than they did for john mccain, it is certainly possible that you could see a split.
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>> facebook.comscspan posted the question, who are you voting for, did you vote today? we're getting a number of responses. donna writes, somehow american sell-off printable along the way. again, >> organic states where there has not been much tonight, watch election coverage on c-spankeep an eye o. from chicago and president obama. mitt romney at his headquarters in boston. victory and concession speeches from across the country. but the night, your reaction by phone, e-mail, facebook, and twitter. live coverage begins at 8:00 eastern.
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you can access interactive maps and the election results, track state ballot initiatives at c- >> we are bringing you historical victory and concession speeches throughout the day here on c-span. coming up, we bring you president george conceding critic george bush conceding the race to arkansas gov. bill clinton. he speaks to supporters and family members at the westin galleria in houston. [applause]
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>> thank you very much. listen, we have got to get going. thank you. thank you very much. >> thank you, george. >> thank you so much. well, here's the way i see it. here's the way we see it and the country should see it -- that the people have spoken and we respect the majesty of the democratic system. i just called governor clinton over in little rock and offered my congratulations. he did run a strong campaign. i wish him well in the white house. and i want the country to know that our entire administration will work closely with his team
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to insure the smooth transition of power. there is important work to be done, and america must always come first. so we will get behind this new president and wish him -- wish him well. and to all who voted for us, voted for me, here, especially here, but all across the country, thank you for your support. and we have fought the good fight and we've kept the faith and i believe i have uphold -- held the honor of the presidency of the united states. now i ask that we stand behind our new president and regardless of our differences, all americans shamed -- the -- shared the same purpose: to make this, the world's greatest nation, more safe and more secure and to guarantee every american a shot at the american dream. and i would like to thank so
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many of you who have worked beside me to improve america and to literally change the world. let me thank our great vice president dan quayle. in the face of a tremendous pounding he stood for what he believes in and he will always have my profound gratitude and certainly my respect. and i would like to salute so many that did special work. rich bond up at the r.n.c., bob teeter, who ran the campaign, bob mosbacher, our entire campaign team. and they've run a valiant effort in a very, very difficult year. and i also want to salute the members of the cabinet, all of whom have served -- who have served this nation with honor, with integrity and with great distinction.
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and i would like to single out two leaders who represent the ideals of public -- the ideal in public service. together they've helped lead the world through a period of unprecedented transition. i'm talking, of course, about my national security adviser, brent scowcroft and jim -- and my good friend and fellow texan, our secretary of state jim baker. [applause] finally, of course, i want to thank my entire family with a special emphasis on a woman named barbara. [applause]
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she has inspired this entire nation and i think the country will always be grateful. but tonight is really not a night for speeches but i want to share a special message with the young people of america. i am absolutely -- i -- you see, i remain absolutely convinced that we are a rising nation. we have been in an extraordinarily difficult period, but do not be deterred, kept away from public service by the smoke and fire of a campaign year or the ugliness of politics. as for me, i plan to get -- i'm going to serve and try to find ways to help people. but i plan to get very active in the grandchild business. and in finding ways to help
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others, but i urge you, the young people of this country, to participate in the political process. it needs your idealism. it needs your drive. it needs your conviction. and again, my thanks, my congratulations to governor clinton, to his running mate, senator gore and my special thanks to each and everyone of you. many of you who have been my side at every single political battle. may god bless -- may god bless the united states of america. thank you very, very much. thank you so much. thank you.
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>> toward bush got 30% of the vote in 1992. bill clinton won with 40%. independent ross perot got 19% of the vote. he spoke to supporters in dallas that year.
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>> wait just a minute. the first thing we want to do, we will be talking about this in a minute. the first thing we want to do is to team up together and make it work now, right? absolutely. you are not too happy, we can make some changes in 1994, right? the main thing now, time is precious. let's try to make it work. texas working together to make it work. i will be talking about that in a minute. we have worked to starting right away. our country needs all of our help. [applause]
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i want to thank all of you are here tonight and all the people who have come here together across the nation. starting last february, you did something that everybody said could not be done. millions of you came together to take your country back. [applause] you gave washington a laser-like message to listen to the people. [applause] you have done an incredible job of getting this country turned back around to the country that our founders established, a country that came from the people and you have changed the country to your massive efforts. i compliment you for it, and it was really the way you did it.
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as i have said, my role in life is to be the grain of sand to the oyster. you irritates the oyster and out comes a pearl. i have been your grain of sand that you chose. it has been an honor to be your grain of sand in this process. we will continue to make pearls as necessary in the future. fair enough? [applause] the american people have spoken. they have chosen governor clinton. congratulations. >> boo! >> wait a minute. the only way we are going to
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make it work, if we all team up together. let's give governor clinton a big round of applause. but for get the election. forget the election. the hard work is in front of us. we must all work together to rebuild our great country. you, the american people, are the greatest people on the face of the earth. if we would just put our differences aside and team up together, we can build our job base, we can eliminate the deficit, we can eliminate the debt, and most importantly, we can bring the american dream to our children, right? [applause] and on the way, we can reform
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our government and get rid of some of these things that are so damaging to us. to the millions of volunteers who asked me to serve as your candidate, as long as i live, one of the happiest memories of my life will be the memory of working with you. that memory will never doubt. nicest honor i have ever received in my life. thank you very much. [applause]
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there are people here tonight and across the country who literally gave it everything they had seven days a week since last february to take this country back and give it to the people, to pay its debts, to pass the american dream under -- onto our children. i want you to know how proud i am of you and how much all of us owe you for the tremendous effort you have made. god bless you and thank you very much. [applause] tonight and across the country who literally gave it everything they had seven days a week since last february to take this country back and give it to the people, to it is just the beginning, but the next up is we need to take all our energy and harness it and -- see, time is not our friend. time is our enemy. these problems our country faces need to be solved immediately.
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we need to work together and with the new administration and give it a world class best effort to get these problems solved now, because if we do, you benefit, the country benefits, your children benefit, and everybody wins. we have got to do it. [applause] spend about 10 minutes that your candidate did not win and then let's make our country work at the national stage, county, city, local and never a level, and every school across the country. the fact that we will go anywhere, anytime, and do
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anything that is good for our country to help the new demonstration as an organization does not mean that we will compromise our principles or integrity in terms of what this organization stands for. [applause] we will never change that one filter that everything has to go through, united we stand. it is a good for our country? is a good for the country? if it gets through that filter then we will back it hard and we will use all the enormous ability that you have to get things done for the benefit our of our people and our country. now, the main thing, do not lose your enthusiasm, do not lose your idealism. do not lose your great love for
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this country. and please do not feel comedy, i am powerless again. as long as we are together, nationwide, you have the enormous voice in this country. so we will stay together and you will be a force for good for our country and children. [applause] like the little children that are here tonight, the college students that have been at the rallies all over the country, when you look at them, you are
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looking at tomorrow. and we must give them a brighter tomorrow than any other generation has ever had in our country. if we keep it that simple and pure and clean, then we can make an enormous contribution, and that is what we must do. we will have our organization established. we have a nationwide network, state-by-state network, community by community network, and we will keep it intact to be a force for constructive good in our country. [applause] the best is in front of us, believe me. [applause] this is no time to get discouraged, no time to throw in the towel.
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this is a time to redouble our efforts and work with the new administration to make sure that our country is a beacon to the rest of the world. to make sure our cities are alabaster cities that gleam, a undimmed by human tears, and to make sure every little child across america is only limited by his or her dreams and their willingness to pay the price and make the effort to make those dreams come true. that is what america is all about. [applause] and that is what you are all about. god bless you, we love you. i want you to know that our love for you and my love for you is paramount and i will carry the memory of these past few months with me for the rest of my life.
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and i am available to you any time, any place them anywhere as long as i am around. god bless you. thank you very much. [applause] cok
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>> 20 years ago, former gov. bill clinton won the 1992 presidential race with 370 electoral votes. here he is giving his victory speech at midnight on election night. he is joined by his wife, his daughter chelsea, and senator al gore and his family. these remarks are " just over 15 minutes. [applause]
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>> thank you. thank you. thank you. thank you. my fellow americans -- [cheers and applause] on this day, with high hopes and brave hearts and massive numbers, the american people have voted to make a new beginning. [cheers and applause]
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this election is a clarion call for our country to face the challenges. at the end of the cold war and the beginning of the next century. to restore growth to our country an opportunity to our people, to empower our own people so they can take more responsibility for their own lives, to face problems ignored too long, and perhaps more still important of all, to bring people together as never before so that our diversity can be a source of strength in the world that is ever smaller, where everyone counts and everyone is a part of america's family.
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i want to begin this night by thanking my family, my wife, without whom i would not be here tonight and who i will be -- why billy will be one of the greatest first lady's the of the history of this republic. [cheers and applause] [chanting "hillary!"] i also want to say a special
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word of thank you to our daughter for enduring are absent, for helping in our effort, and reminding his everyday what this election is really all about. [cheers and applause] i want to thank my mother, my brother, my stepfather, my mother-in-law and father-in-law, my brother-in-law, and my sister-in-law who carried this campaign across this country and stepped-up fermi and -- who sought the up for me from mothers to try to put us down. [cheers and applause] i want to thank the people of this wonderful small state. [cheers and applause]
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time after time, when this campaign was about to be counted out, the arkansas travelers exploded out of this state around the country to tell the people the truth about what we have done here together, how we have pulled together, what we believe in, and what we can do as a nation. i have the best staff and cabinet you can imagine. it kept this state together. even when we were not here, we continue to lead the country in keeping taxes down and polling americans together and show what we can do if the nation pulls together and move forward, too. [cheers and applause] i want to thank the people who were in that infamous group the
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the friends of bill. i will never forget you. i want to thank the people in the new democratic party headed by air chairman ron brown, the new members of congress, the new blood, the new direction that we are giving. finally, i want to thank the members of my brilliant, aggressive, unconventional, but always winning campaign staff. they were unbelievable. [cheers and applause] and they have earned this. i want to say a special word of thank you to two people who lost
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their lives in the course of this campaign, without whom we might not be here tonight. our friends, paul tully and rick ranger. they are looking down on us tonight and they are awful happy. not very long ago, i received a telephone call from president bush. it was a generous and forthcoming telephone call of real congratulations and an offer to work with me in keeping our democracy you running and effective in an important transition. i want you all to join with me tonight in expressing our gratitude to president bush for his lifetime of public service, for the effort he made from the time he was a young soldier in world war ii, to helping to bring about an end to the cold war, to our victory in the gulf war, to the grace with which he conceded the results of this election tonight in the finest
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american tradition. please give mr. bush and his family hand. [applause] i heard mr. perot's remarks tonight and his offer to help. perhaps, it is most important to understand here in the heartland of arkansas is the need to reform the political system, to reduce the end is the influence of special-interest and given fluids back to the kind of people who are here tonight -- and give influence back to the kind of people who are here tonight. and finally, let me say how profoundly indebted i am tonight. beyond the folks of home, beyond the wonderful people who worked in this administration to keep
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our government going, beyond all the others, i have to say a special word of thanks to my magnificent running mate senator al gore and his family. [cheers and applause] give him a hand. [applause] i want to tell you that al and jennifer and hillary and i have become friends. i admire them for what they stand for. they are a joy to be with. they believe in our country. it is an almost unparalleled i combination of intelligence and commitment to this country, to
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our duty to promote freedom and peace in the world and, together, we will do our best to give you a new partnership for a new america. [cheers and applause] i want to thank al's children and his father-in-law and his family. i think we carried every state that senator gore and his wife campaigned in. we have established a partnership in this campaign that we will continue into this new administration. if we have learned anything in the world today coming is that we can accomplish more by teamwork, by working together, by bringing out the best and all the people that we seek and we will seek the best and most able and most committed people throughout this country to be a part of our team. we will ask the democrats who believe in our cause to come
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forward, but we will look, too, among the ranks of independents and republicans who are willing to roll up their sleeves and be a part of the new partnership and get to the business. i reminded again that this victory is more than a victory party. it was a victory for the people who work hard and play by the rules. a victory for the people who feel left out and let behind but want to do better. a victory for the people who are ready to compete and win in a global economy but in need a government that offers a hand up, not a handout. that is what we offer and that is what we will begin to work to provide to all of you tomorrow. today, the steelworker and the stenographer, the teacher and the nurse had as much power in the history of our democracy as the president, the billionaire, and the governor. you all spoke with equal voices for change.
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and tomorrow, we will try to give you that. you can trust us to wake up every day remembering the people we saw on the bus trips, the people we saw in the town meetings, the people we touch that the rallies, the people that to have never voted before, the people who have never -- who have not voted in 20 years, to people who have given up hope. for all those people who said we want our future back and i intend to help give it to you. [cheers and applause] i say to all of those who voted for us that this was a remarkable coalition for change. many of you had to put aside this or that personal ambition to be a part of a broad, deep commitment to change this country. i ask you to keep that commitment as we move from election to governing. we need more than ever for those of you who said let's put the
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public interest over personal interest to keep it right there for four years so we can turn this country around. i say to will those who voted for mr. bush or mr. perot, those who voted for the president among those who voted for ross perot, i know you love your country, too. i ask you to listen to the voice of your leaders. i ask you to join with us in creating every united states, a united country with a new sense of commitment. we will do our best to deserve it. when we seek to offer the young people the opportunity to bar the money they need to go to college and the challenge to pay it back through national service, when we challenge the insurance companies, the drug companies, the providers and consumers, the image to give us a new health care system, when we offer those in welfare and
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you challenge to work and incentives to put people to work and export american products and not american and jobs, it enables all of us to live up to the fullest of our potential. i accept tonight the responsibility that you have given me to be the leader of this, the greatest country in human history. [cheers and applause] i accept it with a full heart, heart and a joyous spirit. but i ask you to be americans again, too, to be interested not just in getting some avoiding giving, not just in placing blame, but now in assuming responsibility, not just in looking at for yourselves, but in looking out for others, too. in this very place, one year and
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one month ago today, i said we need more than new laws, new policies or new programs. we need a new spirit of community. a sense that we're all in this together. if we have no sense of community, the american dream will continue to wither. our destiny is bound up with the destiny of every american. we are all in this together and we will rise or fall together. that has been my message to the american people for the past 13 months and it will be my message for the next four years. together, we can do it. together, we can make the country that we love everything it was meant to be. i still believe in a place called home. [cheers and applause] god bless america. thank you all. [cheers and applause]
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>> polling places in virginia will be open for another five hours or so. this is fire station 10 in arlington, va.
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>> a fairly long line at fire station no. 10 in arlington, virginia on a very chilly early- november day. we will be looking throughout the day at polling places in and around the washington area. and keeping an eye on the, twitter, particularly some of the reporters covering the campaign. michael bryan up in the same -- of nbc says that romney just .isited a wendy's
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tonight, what's the results of the presidential race here on c- span. we will have the senate, house and governor's races across the nation and have the victory concession speeches from obama headquarters in chicago, romney headquarters in boston. we will focus on some of the key competitive seats. and watch the reaction by phone, facebook, and could. -- and twittered. every house seat is up for grabs this year, of course. we talked with a capitol hill reporter for some background. >> this is the deputy editor for the rothenberg capital report. >> right now, the most likely
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scenario is maybe democrats pick up a couple or a handful of seats, but nowhere near the 25 seat-gain that they need to restore nancy pelosi as speaker of the house. there are a couple of factors. republicans did a good job in some key states, such as pennsylvania and ohio, taking some normally competitive seats, making them more republican, tougher takeover targets and pulling them off the battleground map. the other challenge is that democrats are playing defense. they have a number of vulnerable republicans. they might defeat a republican member of congress, but lose a member of their own. >> let's talk about some individual races. i want to talk about upstate new york, just as of buffalo. trying to preserve a democratic seat. >> kathy oval is revealed -- is
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revered in the democratic party. she is facing a more republican district than she faced before. choose facing chris collins who can be polarizing figure. but he wears that as a badge of honor. he says that i'm not just here to go along to get along. the republican nature of the district is probably dragging her down, even though she might be more personable. >> in florida, congressman alan west, a tea party republican, trying to keep his seat for a second term. >> running against patrick murphy. this is one of the most expensive, nastiest, and closest races in the country. the district, by the numbers from is very competitive, but alan west is tenacious. right now, he is running probably three times the number of television ads that a normal
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candid it would run at this stage. even though he is polarizing, he is also strategic. he is a former military officer. patrick murphy has a tough task in coming across over west. >> in utah, the fourth congressional district, mia love, a republican, african- american, she's getting a lot of attention. >> he survived the republican wave in republican districts, but republicans did not target him. they did not spend a lot time in many defeating him. but now he has more new territory. he is running against a very conventional candidate, against a black republican conservative woman. that is not a stereotype or typical politician. mitt romney will be at the top of the ballot here. john mccain got over 60%. i think we can see mitt romney
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get the most -- get almost 7%. that is the threshold of the crossover votes that jim mathis needs to survive. i think it is a tossup, but it will be tough to overcome that top-of-the-ticket impasse. >> in nevada. >> johann eck, this is because the district the democrats should be challenging if you want to win a majority. this is a suburban, loss vegas- clark county district. right now, democrats are having a tough time going after heck. the democratic nominee is a former leader in the state house. he has an influential position in the state legislature. he has a record as a firefighter. they are not even mentioning that he is a politician because of that label is not when you want to have. right now, heck has the advantage, but it democrats have a better night than we expect,
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they would need to do better in this type of district. >> california is a solid blue state for the president, but a couple of interesting house races in that state. >> california, we can almost ignore the state come even though it is the largest state. there have only been one or two seats that had a chance of one party taking over the other. but the citizen legislator redistricting commission and the top two primary that has been turned on its head. democrats need to almost sweep all of the competitive races that we have in california in order to get even close to the 25. >> a couple of house races in which an incumbent is in danger, first in maryland. >> roscoe bartlett is a victim of democratic redistricting where he used to represent
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western maryland and now comes down to montgomery county and the washington, d.c. suburbs. he faces delaney, who is surprising. but the democratic nature -- the new democratic nature of the district will be tough for bartlett, even though ross perot has -- even though he has an element that the stomach of a typical republican. but he is facing a very different montgomery county electorate that is wealthy and intellectual and it will be tough to keep the republicans in the majority. >> john tierney getting a lot of attention with some allegations of gambling and offshore money that his in-laws may have made for him and his family. >> he is in a lot of trouble. we believe he is now an underdog in the race. it is for a couple of different reasons. he does have this ethical cloud surrounding his brothers and law.
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his wife serve some time for her misconduct. i think that a thick cloud as part of his problem. the other challenges that he is facing richard touse. is an openly gay republican who is not tied to the tea party label. he is an extreme conservative when he is an openly gay republican. republicans have run a good campaign. i think it would be surprised know if tierney comes back to congress. >> the rematch in new hampshire one. >> between the republican congressman and carol j. porter, who he defeated in 2010 -- new hampshire, if you're going to one -- if you're going to watch one state, it is a presidential battleground. both congressional districts are tossups. charlie bass is trying to hang on against janet link tester. and the governor's race is open
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wide and competitive as well. the congressional races are tossups. >> what about pennsylvania 12? who is in the race? >> it is shocking that we're not talking about more competitive races in pennsylvania. in eastern pennsylvania, republican members of congress should be a low-level war are normally loanable. in western pennsylvania, mark crist faces republican keith ross. this is a republican district. just talking with democratic strategists, they say that the only thing keeping mark interest in this race is that johnstown base that could turn out. that is the only thing keeping this race competitive. otherwise, republicans would already have this in the column. >> what are the races that will
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really be a bellwether on election night? >> looking and nevada, we talked about the third district. but the fourth district, which was drawn and assumed that the democrats would win it, the republican is in the game. he lost in the senate primary in 2010. but that is the top of district that democrats, again, should be winning and need to win to do well. overall, on election night, i will be watching the seats that republicans, that we have as republican-favored or that lean republican. that is how far down our competitive race list is. democrats have to start winning and defeating republican members in order to get close to the majority. if they are not winning this heavily-republican seats, they will not have enough. >> let me conclude with this point. if you look at the big picture, the balance of power, and you see where the president is
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strong and where governor romney is strong, will there be coattails in these states? >> the most impact we have seen in the president's race has already happened. in talkingit is talking to demo. that first debate was fundamentally important not just because it shifted the presidential race or reset the frame but because there was a time when house candidates were starting to go on television, trying to prove their moderate credentials. it almost took potential republican crossover voters. they rushed over to the republican side. this is important for both sides that the candidates of the race stays close. i think the biggest impact may have already happened. >> they think gonzales, thank you very much. >> thank you.
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>> of the house seats are up for election. 1/3 of the senate and 11 governorships. robert draper is the author of the book "do not ask what good we do inside the u.s. house of representatives." his conversation is about 45 minutes. >> i am the ceo of the texas tribune. i am pleased to be here with my old buddy, an author whose latest book is "do not ask what could we do inside the house of representatives." he is a familiar face around these parts. up here together again is like dean martin and jerry lewis again. he is a conservative writer to the new times magazine and national geographic.
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he is a native of houston and attended the university of texas at austin. please join me in welcoming robert draper. >> nice to see. are we better off than me were two years ago? >> i really have to answer that question. unit ofk that the measurement that the democrats would use for congress is different from that which the republicans would use. speaker john boehner has said the past we passed a record low number of bills speaks well of this congress. we are not increasing taxes. the way that most people look at it attested to by its record low popularity is that this is a
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congress that has been defined by dysfunction and gridlock, a congress in which capital lows has never been better than none. compromise has seemed to be a foreign policy, a policy forum to be delivered to a body. >> you think the people who ran in 2010 and got elected or a senate to positions of leadership believe that it is a solution or that they were elected to not do things? >> from the class of 2010, i think their belief is that they are doing precisely what the people " elected them wish to do, rollback all obama initiatives, cut spending. and lots of them thought the debt ceiling should not be
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increased under any circumstances. they basically believed their job was to elect barack obama. they can pass those initiatives that cause a better environment. there is a funding of programs that has never been more dear. some aboute'll talk the debt ceiling. after we were taken to the brink of a fiscal cliff, the thinking on the house of the leadership was may be our tea party will go home and get yelled at a bit. they will realize that, burma's compromise is not a bad thing. the pen that go to town halls
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and to be activists. why did to accept a deal? you said do not raise the debt ceiling. at best there have been mixed m. the case that the leadership feels itself is out of sync with those who wish to obstruct or does leadership happy that the freshmen are getting blamed for the dirty work a politically would not be able to do? >> the leadership is happy that our leadership. they're happy they are in power. i expect to wake up screaming because they do not have control over their caucus.
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it is not for this class of 1987 freshmen. he would be minority leader caner. they came into leadership and made it very clear that they were not going to be told to fall into line. if ever the democrats regain power, and the enforcement tools of yesteryear are in need of yesteryear. in march have now been banned. with the plot is fear, you can turn somebody into an instant marcher by stripping them of their assignments. it is hard to use a stick in addition to a carrot. i refer to after the debt ceiling fiasco of the summer of 2011 when they came back to fund the government.
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the republican leadership believes they could get an easy vote. the appropriations committee, which designs these resolutions was serious. they insisted on a meeting with the leadership. we are the ones being punished. we are cutting spending. they will not vote. john boehner said we cannot do that anymore. >> the leadership does not feel like they are in a position to leave on matters of the debt ceiling or anything else. >> this whole book has been devoted to the debt ceiling. from my standpoint, all the wind and sales, at the bottom is the
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speaker john boehner never had the vote anyway. whatever deal he would have struck with the obama administration would almost certainly have failed. he would have relied so heavily on democratic votes to do so that he ran the risk of an insurrection. there was a meeting during the whole showdown over the debt ceiling in which some of john boehner's closest allies met in said if you come back with a deal that he fashioned with obama at that is i get more than 100 votes or so, they've started to whisper a campaign against you. we saw and had been with speaker gingrich. it can happen to you. john boehner walked away from a deal. >> i want to come with the
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interplay. i have to ask this. i think he knows that the president was initially off the record. he was seeking one of the things he said is that he believes he can get a grand bargain. saying, andt you're may not be possible. some of the new members to comment and not give john boehner their blessing to go cut a deal. john boehner may feel in the same tough spot now than he was last year. a grand bargain may not be possible if obama wins under any circumstance. >> i have been doing general election reporting. and talk to the campaign manager of the obama campaign,
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rahm emanuel, stephanie cutter, asking them how the next four years under an obama at present a given that the composition of be the same, how will things be different? uniformly their answer was that the fever will break. the american people will vote for obama will basically be voting against obstructionism. the republicans will get the message. they will walk toward the center. >> i cannot see that happening at all. their talking point. ai we sang there is some deal waiting for him after he gets into office? >> i am not. i read a story for the new york times magazine on governor
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romney and for his time on governor that appeared about three weeks ago or so. he says i interviewed a number of people, particularly the more conservative of house republicans. he said this would be a moment for them to legislate aggressively a conservative agenda. my question was but what if that is not so? what did governor romney decide that is not how he wishes to government? he will govern more in the mode of his first two years when he was governor of massachusetts. they uniformly said they would be disappointed. one of the stars of the tea party freshman class said there will be an insurrection. people say we have been really boisterous. you have seen nothing yet.
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the present romney does not behave like a conservative, it'll be the death of the republican party but we will burn it down. a secondsit there for and let it sink in. >> left the back to the leadership. i want to ask you specifically about characterized john boehner and mccarthy starting with john boehner. >> john boehner was not the obvious choice to be leading this kind of tea party class. he can see the tea party phenomenon for the freight train it was pitch elected to be on the freight train rather than under. he campaigned heavily. he believed that this presented the republicans and america.
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this of be a perfect recipe for entitlement reform. the cannot walk away from it. he believed he could leverage the deep conservatism of the tea party into action. he has failed to do so. the tea party freshmen with whom i spent a great deal of time do not like him personal and found him admiral in the way of a general ceo. certainly not as their real leader. that has been implicitly clear throughout the 112th congress. eric kanter is a bit different. he is younger than john boehner.
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he is a very clever guy. he has his own channel interesting in the obama white house. i think they have found that they need each other a as of information sources. i believe it was joe biden that was leaking to eric cantor that john boehner was pursuing a separate talks with obama it during the so-called biden talks this made cantor livid anti almost walked out -- and he walked out of those talks almost certainly because of the dynamics with john boehner. does this sound childish do you? >> if eric cantor walked past john boehner leaning out the window, he would not hesitate to push him what he? >> john boehner is very even tempered.
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garretinterest he is kevin mcca. he has only been in for three terms. a lot of ways he is practically a freshman himself. this was a very clever move on his part. they have been the straw that has stirred the drink of the 112th congress. mccarthy and cantor are very close. there in the troika of these young guns. the third is paul ryan of the house budget committee.
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they represent a youth movement. there are a lot of people in john boehner's world. there is not a day-to-day parlor in shape. >> i cannot go on without asking about paul ryan and the role he has played in this congress and the degree to which his several celebrity is embraced. he is the one that got out.
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is everybody in the republican leadership and ranks? are they happy to see him there? do they respect him as much as they are said to? >> the people who distrust paul ryan in the republican party are the members of the so-called tuesday group, the waning in number group of moderate republicans. they have the imposition of the so-called ryan budget as the republican house budget. that budget have been kicking around for several years when he was the ranking member of the budget committee. he would introduce that as the majority budget. when the tea party wave came in and the republicans took the
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house and now ryan is chairman of the house budget committee, ryan was the very careful to develop consensus among these think tanks. a small number of moderates were drowned out. that bill pass with only four republicans voting against it. it was astonishing. ryan is widely admired amongst the freshman class. he's a very clever guy. ryan is one of the guys who is pulled up the speed of being a politician who makes you feel like he is above politics. he has practiced his own cunning a brand of politics. >> should mitt romney and paul and he returns to the
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chorus, will that be ok with him at? will ryan possibly displace john boehner and the others in some sort of leadership role? >> i do not think that is the pact he is interested and in. this is going to be in the white house, then the chair is at issue are the action is. on the democratic side, the van hollen made a movement away from the leadership track to be the counterpart to ryan. he knew that was a high-profile assignment. >> the mention the democrat which reminds me there are still democrats. you can be forgiven for thinking there were not any. we have not talked about any democrats so far. how is nancy pelosi regarded? now she isaker's and
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leader pelosi. i guess it was not a given that she is still in control. there does not seem to be any direction to change the dynamic. >> >> there not be any kind of resurrection they talked to lots of other people. and following a round of the republican freshmen, it was interesting to see these guys. one thing it did involve was their opinion of pelosi. they came to really respect her. she can count better than anybody in washington. she can count the numbers that it takes for her to be house minority leader.
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after she lost the leadership, a democrat decided to run against her. she made it very clear very quickly that she had the boat on him and a lot of people have to not miss so quickly might have supported realize it was not a good idea to be sorted out there. she is a very formidable person. to also the face of the democratic house. this has not been a good thing. after the democrats lost, there was a meeting at a detailed in which pelosi call a closed-door. none of the staffers were present. she said i would like the people who are defeated, i would like for this to be their opportunity to vent whatever they would like to then. a lot of democrats did lose.
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others said they blamed no one. it was just the nature of an unpopular president. several of them stood up and said speaker's, i have a lot of respect for you. you have become the base of our defeat. i campaigned as a moderate. i government as a moderate congressman. all they did was run ads as if we were best but. they will do it again. that is their playbook. fire pelosi was the big republican national committee. there was a big banner about it. after the republicans took
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power, they took the sign down and put up one that said higher pelosi. >> is this more problematic for the democrats today in terms of their desire to do their announcement? >> they're both problematic. they use the obama apparatus for fund-raising. that is about its. there was a drive. that is how many seats are necessary for the democrats to flip. there appeared to be a moment in time in upstate new york.
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this look like it would be the winning arguments, to say the republicans will in the guarantee. >> i want to take the moderator at the texas book festivals' private jet and ask you about one congressman he write about. one is from corpus christi. he is an interesting guy. he is more fun to write about than the others. why did you pick on him? would you talk about into this group? >> many of you know this name in a different context. his grandmother is a liberal icon. we did not get his politics from his grandmother. he ran in 2010. the texas congressional district
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included brown's bill. it was 70's aren't hispanic. blake spoke no spanish. in 2010 it was a midterm year. many stayed at home. he won by a runoff. >> he beat solomon ortiz senior. >> that is right. >> you are right. at first to his inexperience and the ways of government or politics. here right 3.5 weeks after everybody else did. his was one of the citizen politicians to try -- who, try
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as he might, it can never catch up. he had this recurring nightmare that he was alone in his office and there was no phone. he was never able to get it. he told a group of business lobbyists that you have that anxiety dream. they are really big in the house of his mind. the need to be the guys to tell me to wear my pants. i remember him saying to me very early, he was trying to apply his business acumen to the model of politics. this seems like a part-time job to me.
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steering the -- during the beginning, this was a glorious process. he had no legislative director to explain them to him. he had been a radio disc jockey. he did not have a congressional website because he used to own a computer business. he knew to put a website it only of dollars tober do. he found the prices they were charging were agreed to a. in court as they cost a lot less. he did not put up a site for a while. it became his own worst enemy on top of which his wife became very interested in the personnel and lots of things.
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this in turn cause great personnel turnovers. he was elected there is a solution to this problem. it is called redistricting. in the meantime, he would have these town, meaning something a lot of latinos would show up. when he would talk about this, these guys would stand up and say we did not send it to washington to compromise. >> i have to say in who in god's name would want to do this? unique serving in congress sound so unattractive. -- you make serving in congress
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sound so unattractive. >> there is a guy i have spent a lot of time with. he is a democrat from michigan. he has been serving since 1955. previous to him, his father served in the same district until his father died and his son ran into this place. dingle used to be thought of as a liberal. they did not find him as sufficiently liberal. even with the democrats in the minority and him being removed from the pecking order of power, is able to get things done. he knows how to pull strings on
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behalf of his budget. he passed this pipeline safety bill which is a regulation bill during the tea party congress. dingell is a dying breed. his philosophy is to govern from the center. you bring everybody on board. you talk about what they would like. it sounds pretty reasonable. the democrats were guilty of the same thing. magnum come all the way in that direction. >> it is the passing of an era. we have time for question period please use your outside the boys.
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we will take as many as they tell us we can take. when it tells the cannot take any more, we will cut you off. >> given the too big to fail banks are now bigger and more and givened than ever that the dodd/frank bill reforms have been deleted and delayed, i am assuming there'll be another banking crisis eventually. do you think that if another t.a.r.p. bill comes out to bail out the banks, do you think the two-party in house would go along with that? >> no. i think t.a.r.p. is still a dirty word, are together early in conservative circles. roy blunt helped put t.a.r.p.
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together. the conservative a portion of this party has never forgiven him for that. the point of view is that anything that basically causes more regulation of the things creates more problems than it solves. i'm speaking now of the house republicans. i do not see the illogical composition of the house republicans changing anytime soon. -- ideological composition of the house republicans changing anytime soon. some of these guys, one is in good standing of the moderate tuesday club. he is retiring in large part because of his disgust of the tea party.
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he mellowed over time. even the class of 1994 was nowhere near as conservative. >> you think if a t.a.r.p. bill comes out, at the position will be let the banks go? >> john boehner will have a decision to make. he will not want there to be a depression on his watch, but severely if there is a republican administration. mitt romney supported tar. we supported it rather rapidly. when the bank meltdown was up one as, the decision to do so came as a result of a meeting he had with his economic advisory team. a lot more big corporate donors. and it romney was among them.
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all of the guys said take it. does not down looks bad. the next day romney went on the today show and said i support t.a.r.p.. bit there is a president romney and if there continues to be difficulties with the banks, yes, there could be a recipe for more regulation. >> what impact if any to you think the changes in california and their method for electing congressional representatives will have t? >> my understanding you right, there was a bipartisan commission that did the
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redistricting. i did a story for the atlantic monthly. it mentions this thing. the belief by many politicians is that there's no such thing as a bipartisan board. it largely managed to influence a lot of these. having said that, there are a number of other states in the u.s. that do have bipartisan redistricting commission. just for what it is worth, the reason why this is a salient topic i am often asked if this is the worst congress ever for the and this is not we wish what congress would be, what would be the solution, there are not many that come to mind.
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redistricting reform would be one of them. when we create these districts that are so rigidly red or blue, and then we send to washington people who are beholden to the most extreme elements of their party. those people have no incentive whatsoever to compromise. as long as we are allowing the majority you party to then gerrymandered districts that will favor their party and kneecap the opposition, then we are perpetuating or exasperatingly -- exacerbating this. there has been a guy named john tanner who was head of the blue dog democrats. he kept trying to bring it up during a democratic majority. nancy pelosi would hear nothing of it. it would never get schedule.
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another one had been trying to get its on for consideration. to reform congress, congress has to play along. that seems unlikely to happen. >> you had 52 congressional districts in california. they have this system. another are 10 districts that have republican versus republican. >> it is forcing them to the center. it would seem they're doing this. >> i do think though some people have pointed to the example that this is proof of a flawed means of reform, it still strikes me as a palatable the form. >> compared to what?
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>> do you see any evidence to support this claim? is it just wishful thinking? >> which will thinking. -- wishful thinking. it seems like every month and a half there is another many movement amongst the largely conservative opinion leaders. they start writing stories about how the tea party movement is dead. the most recent evidence is that if mitt romney when such a move to the center. bt party has never been proved that we are a hard right nation. i think if rodney peete obama it will be because he has won a lot of independent -- @ romney beat obama it will because he has won
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a lot and the pending votes. it has entered the bloodstream. that is by the voting behavior of congressman. ecb ryan budget. of these republicans previously -- ucb ryan budget. all these republicans that voted about it. when the people i write about is a moderate republican in missouri. she voted against a couple of things were hurt voting behavior sufficientlyed significantl right wings. that peter strikes fear into the heart of a larger legislature. >> said governor romney loses, the response from the tea party will be i told you so.
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>> what do you see coming down the line considering the judicial appointment crisis? >> as soon the idea that there are lots of unfilled vacancies. -- i assume the idea that there are a lot of unfilled vacancies. >> the problem is this is a different issue. it has to do with a particular center to block a particular federal appointment of due to the rules and traditions of the senate. there have been is to reform that. i do not see there being any change in the behavior any time soon. >> we may have exactly the same situation in the congress. the republican majority is barely in the senate. bake happen next time.
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-- that can happen at any time. >> hank paulson said that this does not pass the robbie no economy on monday. do you think with rummy or obama if another such moment occurs, they can still send the economy down the drain and? >? there is a moment i memorialize but i think is real illustrious of the thinking of 70 republican parties. the house leadership, i'm answering your question generally, they were concerned. they believe the debt ceiling needed to be raised. they believe is in the whole
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faith and credit of the united states was a very dangerous proposition and that default would be a terrible thing. because they conceded, a lot of members and not consider it to be the case. they brought in this treasury to explain to them what would happen if august 2 came and went in the debt ceiling was not right. he gets a power point presentation of when social security checks would not go through, how all federal presence would close. it was very compelling evidence that this would be really calamitous. there is a republicans that set up. they said it is outrageous that you are talking about this in some of washington's regular spending habits.
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-- instead of washington's regular spending habits. they were just unwilling to listen to this. one of the tea party freshman said i have some tea party constituents that say we should not raise the debt ceiling. can you explain to me what this is about? i would rather lose my temper to you. the thing is we have been reckless with our spending. these are the consequences, so be it. she said pour me a glass of wine. i cannot believe i have a meeting with a guy who claims to be a congressman. the >> that would be perfect place to end. >> given that you go to a lot of these meetings, had always heard
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people say if you just do this, meaning there's a correlation between doing something and and and results -- and an end result, are we taking action ?han in the past tax > >> the town halls i went to war republican town halls. the sentiment was a feeling of distrust toward washington, a feeling that the public has lost control and that washington has not been acting in their best interest. some of this is part of a psyche that began with 9/11 and a feeling of vulnerability that has persisted. what i have not heard as often
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as is discussions of if we pass this measure will that tell? washington really believes in zero is some politics. this is not an original thought in mind. the leadership on both sides has not been so much about how we fix the problem of how we maintain power. a lot to these discussions have been about how the republicans rolled back the obama administration and make him a week and then overtake him. the laws of this is called into the argument about what is good for america. there is not a whole lot of policy description. >> thank you. it was very good to talk to you. robert draper. please buy his book. thank you very much. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2012]
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>> every house seat, but third of the senate ends governorships are on the line today. topics range from gay marriage to casinos. for more on what the outlook of the senate is, we talked to a reporter following the races. >> just that keeps track of house and senate races. let's talk about the big picture. what are we looking at? >> if we looked at our ratings a year or six months ago, it was a very different picture. democrats were defending twice as many seats. it felt like they had a good chance to get the four or three seats they needed to flip that. there were a couple of things that really shifted the way we're looking at the senate now.
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i think republicans were thrown for a loop when olympia snowe retired. that shrunk their plank field. democrats got some very good candidates and what should have been tough state for them. it force republicans to have to step up their game. missouri is a perfect example. democrats thought claire mccaskill was not coming back. on his own he was not raising money. he did not have the kind of campaign official assured that he needed. they to get out of the republicans grasping have to widen their opportunities.
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our baseline right now is at no net change to a republican gain of three. it would depend on who would wednesday presidency. even a small gain for democrats is not in the picture. >> let's begin with the maine.\/ >> i think we'll see an independent center joining the ranks. where is angus king going to caucus? republicans tried to make this interesting. could they go down and boost up charlie summer's numbers?
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they have a base line for this to happen. in this team is very well known and liked their. democrats did have to go in and put their money there. they were solely aiming that again summers. i think that needed any republican money. >> in massachusetts, one of the most closely watched senate races. we have carried every one of their debate. essentially it is a dead heat. polls are showing that elizabeth warren is moving ahead slightly. >> we moved this to our tossup column. scott brown was not supposed to make get in the special
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election. the burden was even heavier in massachusetts. he needed to win over a majority of independents. the polls have shown he is not meeting the base lines. he is coming close. i think he will fall jewish short. i think he deserves credit for making this a close race. i think elizabeth warren should be considered a very slight favorite. >> virginia, two former governors and senators trying to recapture his old seat. >> they are both very well known. it is interesting. they are both talking about their time as governor.
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i think both parties really felt like this was going to be a foot for whoever won the presidency. only saw obama take a slight lead after the election, i think some people started to rethink that. i think allen is running ahead of romney that could certainly help them. we have seen a couple of polls that show came within a narrow edge. we think this one is still very neck and neck and may not be called on election night. i think we're going to see very heavy turnout. allen will fall short in northern virginia. i think he needs to hold his own. it is going to be very close. >> let me ask you about to
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democratic incumbents. the polls show a lead for shared brown in ohio. both democrats. republicans both target in ohio and florida. >> conventional wisdom was a piece of both presidential swing state. you have seen romney for a lot of money in the states. candidates and campaigns really matter. in ohio, sharon brown recognize that this would be early. he spent a lot of money. could romney boost him a couple of point? maybe. i think brown could win.
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he also thought that outsiders would come out and save him and can make up the money to run a very extensive statements. we have not really seen that happen. i think that nelson has a very moderate image. he has gotten pretty lucky was some opponents in the past. 2006 was supposed to be a another year. he's got a pretty lucky against opponents. i think is going to move it to
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the democrat favored winning spirit >> money has not been a problem in connecticut. >> i think republicans were very much in dues. i think she should be granted for one of the best political makeovers in a while. republicans wrote her off. i think chris murphy had some trouble statewide and some problems he had to explain. she was able to take advantage of that. >> her campaign has completely retooled. she reinvents herself. she has had some good television ads. murphy is making up the advantage where it needs to be. she is open a case like, but not a huge leak that democrats would like in connecticut. lead that democrats would like in connecticut. north dakota is an interesting
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one. it is one that if democrats have not gotten the right candidate, we would not be talking about it being as competitive. the democrat gets rave reviews on the trail. burke found himself under water for a bruising campaign for the house. he had to remake his image statewide. heidi's biggest problem is that romney will probably win the state by 20 points. he will not win by double digits.
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it will be a close race. we give rick burke the edge. >> and tester? >> he has problems in a state like montana in getting above 50. on election night, i would be watching to see how much the third-party candidate will be getting. i had one strategist tell me
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that the last last two states to be called in 2006 were montana and virginia. >> what is going to happen to claire mccaskill? >> democrats were handed the best gift of the cycle with todd akin's comments. she has had ads where rape survivors talk about this. they are moving ads. if republicans were probably
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looking at this race, it would have been a huge gamble. scott brown distanced himself from todd akin. ultimately, too much damage has been done. mccaskillwill not win by double digits, will win. heller deserves credit for running what has been a good campaign. turnout turnout is the big question.
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we moved this race into our tilt republican category. it has been a while since we have seen surveys outside of the margin. >> and finally, arizona. >> democrats have made republicans work for it. a former surgeon general. an oppressive police and military background. flake suffered from a bruising primary. he had to spend a lot of this money. we are seeing the state go back to a republican lean. rounding will win comfortably. we saw mitt romney cut an ad for
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jeff flake. turnout could be key. there is a large lds population there. they are breathing a little bit easier. there is always a surprise or two on election night. what potential surprises could there be? >> i think pennsylvania is another one that has been on the radar. certainly, we did not count very early on as competitive. tom smith, a millionaire coal
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executive has put his money in there and bob casey really did not take the race seriously. we have seen the presidential race tightened slightly but i think obama has a narrow edge. republicans have had to go in -- democrats have certainly had to go help him and outside groups a little bit. i think what we are looking for is if we see scott brown not pull out in massachusetts very early on, if we see tim kaine, i think it becomes very difficult for republicans math to get to 3, which is very different from what they felt a while ago. i think democrats give credit for getting a very good candidates in some of these races and even if they fall short in places like arizona and north dakota, they made republicans spend money there in places where they but not think
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they would have to. >> thank you very much. >> live election day coverage on c-span with some obama supporters in virginia. just across the street from to polling sites -- the fire station no. 10 in arlington, virginia and to the right of your screen, that is the wilson school, also a polling place. >> some electioneering going on
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in arlington, virginia. president obama is in chicago this afternoon, playing basketball right now, according to one person who tweets for the huffington post. a state court judge has ordered election officials to cover up
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and a obama mural at a philadelphia school serving as a polling place. the associated press says mitt romney has spoken in ohio and have lunch this afternoon at wendy's. our election night coverage get underway this evening with the latest results from the presidential race and in the senate, house, and governor races across the country. we will have coverage of president obama in chicago and mitt romney in boston. we will have -- acceptance at concession speeches. you can find more on c-span radio and >> watch election night coverage with president obama in chicago and met romney in boston. you can watch the victory and acceptance speeches and we will have your reactions by phone, e- mail and twitter.
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you can access interactive maps and election results and tied up dates and the balance of power in congress and track state ballot initiatives. >> we are bringing you historic victory and concession speeches. bob dole is next, addressing supporters after losing his bid to unseat president bill clinton in the 1996 election. he is joined by his wife elizabeth and his daughter. he speaks for about 12 minutes. >> thank you. all right. thank you very much. thank you.
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thank you very much. [applause] i was just thinking on the way down, on the way downstairs, i was just thinking on the way downstairs -- i was thinking on the way down the elevator, the more will be the first time in my life i don't have anything to do. [applause] but i wanted to come down and thank all of you. you have all been a great job and i am very proud. we're going to keep the senate and keep the house.
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[applause] [chanting "thank you, bob" >> thank you very much. let me say i talked to president clinton. we had a good visit and i congratulated him. i said repeatedly -- i said repeatedly in this campaign that the president was my opponent, not my enemy, and i wish him
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well and pledge my support in whatever advances the cause of a better america. that's with the race is about in the first place. a better america as we go into the next century. i'm also proud of my teammates, at jack kemp. [applause] i want to thank not only jack but his wife joanna did an outstanding job and all of the camp family for the work they did in this campaign. obviously, i want to thank to outstanding women -- my daughter, who did a great job. [applause] and, of course, my wife, elisabeth [applause]
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from one end to the other and a they have both been with me in this 96-hour marathon. we had a great time. we had a great crowd and a lot of enthusiasm. at 3:00, in independence, missouri, i had never talked to so many people in one place so excited about the republican party. let me tell you a few special words. let me say a special word to all of the young americans and young people who got involved in my campaign. [applause]
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you have been a constant source of inspiration for elizabeth and myself. i might add -- you are not going to get that tax cut if you don't be quiet. i would say to the young people and all the others involved, it's a lot more fun winning. hertz to lose an election, but keep fighting the good fight. [applause] you will be the one who makes the 21st century the next american century. anybody to pass out here, but i would like to thank
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all the media travelling with me and all my friends -- , -- all of my friends -- and we have many friends in the media and they were there every day and every night as we flew around this country and we met hundreds of thousands and thousands of good people all across america who want a better america and will continue working for a better america and as i look around tonight, i saw a lot of very special people have been helping me for the last 10, 15, 20, 25 years. thank you for all you have done because i know your support -- i know that because of your support, i'm still the most
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optimistic man in america. [applause] i know that thousands of view have worked day and night and millions of view trusted jack kemp and me with your vote and for that, lee will always be grateful and i want to say thank you very much. [applause] i would say you have done an outstanding job. we appreciate it very much. we have had our co-chairman flying around with us.
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we appreciate you being with us. i want to say to my campaign staff and everyone else, i could not have had a better, more faithful, more loyal team. i want to thank you everybody. [applause] it has been a long time since i entered politics way backed in 1951. a lot of things have happened since that time, but some things never change. a few days after i took my seat in the state legislator, a reporter asked me what i had on my agenda. i said i was going to sit back and watch a few days and then i will stand up for lack think is right.
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if any of you wonder what my plans may be in the future, and going to set back for a few days and then i'm going to start standing up for what i think is right in america. [applause] and to all of those who may be watching out there, the millions of people the support of us, i say thank you. we have enjoyed it. has been a long, long the campaign. i learned a lot and i hope the american people learned a lot. what we need to do is come to get there as we always will and we are going to keep the house and the senate. we're going to do what we should do for the united states of america.
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i have never been prouder in my life than to have been the republican nominee for president of the united states. i leave you all tonight with a full heart and a prayer that we will meet again and we will meet often. in this land, where every day is a new beginning and every life is a blessing from god, i want to say thank you to each of you here, thank you for all you have done and will do in the future. god bless america. [applause]
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>> now president bill clinton returns to the old statehouse in little rock to celebrate his reelection to a second term in 1996. he is joined by his wife hillary, his daughter chelsea, these remarks are just over 20 minutes. [applause] >> my fellow americans thank you
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for being here. just four years from now, we will enter a new century of great challenge and unlimited possibilities. we have a bridge to build and i'm ready if you are. today, the american people have spoken. they have affirmed our course. they have told us to go forward. america has told everyone of us, democrats, republicans and independents loud and clear that it is time to put politics aside, joined together, and get the job done for america's future. in the last four years, we have made remarkable progress, but in
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our schools, our families, our work places and our communities, our jury is not done. my fellow americans, we have work to do and that is what this election is all about. i want to say to all of you here and all the american people, no words can convey the gratitude i feel tonight for the honor that has been given to me. it is an honor that belongs to many. first to my family, to my wonderful wife of 21 years who from that day i first met her began teaching me that it does take a village to raise our children and build our future. to our daughter, chelsea, for understanding the work we have
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done together, the burdens it has imposed, today, i went down to the train station to vote in the last election in which i will appear on the ballot. as i have done every year since she was born, i took her to the ballot with me. as we looked at the ballot together and discussed the issues, i think god i was born an american. [applause] i thank the members of my wonderful family who are here, my stepmother, my wonderful mother-in-law and all the others and i think my beloved mother who is smiling that there and said i never had a doubt. i always knew it would be this
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way. i thank the friends of my lifetime, there are people who have stood with me through thick and thin, it started with me in grade school and junior and senior high school, in college and across the years cents. friends who knew me and a dream and stood as a powerful force against those who sought to stop american politics with the politics of personal destruction. thank you my friends for what you did for america. [applause] i thank the people of my beloved native state. i would not be anywhere else in the world tonight. [applause] in front of this wonderful old capital that has seen so much of
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my own life in our state's history, thank you for staying with me so long, for never giving up, for always knowing we could do better. i thank the finest vice president this country has ever seen. [applause] because of al gore, we have a stronger and more secure relationship with a democratic russia. we are exploring the wonders of new technology for the benefit of america and we are protecting our environment and we have reinvented the american government so it does more with less. it is a legacy unique in the history of this republic. i thank tepper for her friendship, for her crusade on behalf of our children and the
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mental health of the american people and always standing with us all along with her children and her family. i thank the members of our administration, the cabinet members, the members of the white house staff by. [applause] -- the members of the white house staff. i think all those part of the permanent service to the president, the white house and medical staff. be i think especially my secret service detail for serving a president determined not to be held apart from the american people. i thank the members of our campaign staff and all those who have served in this election and the work you have done. i think the leaders of our party in the congress and
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statehouses. i think all those who stood for what we believe in in these elections today. you did a service to america by raising the things in which we believe and i thank you all and wish you godspeed. i want to thank the employees of the nation's government. they have had to do a remarkable job. we have had to reduce the small -- had to reduce the size of the government the smallest point since president kennedy served. they had to do it in the face of challenges and outright hatred and live with the horror of oklahoma city and the difficulties that came along the way. but the people who serve us deserve our thanks and i thank them. i think those who serve this --
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who are no longer here tonight, and one i must thank, my friend and brother, ron brown. i know you are smiling. on a purely personal note, i must thank my pastor who prayed with me before i am here tonight. all ministers and people of god who prayed with me and for me over these last four years. there were a few especially, and they know who they are. they came to the white house time after time. they reminded me god gave st. paul 8 born in his flesh so he would not become exulted in his own eyes. that was not a problem for me in the bad times.
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when the times were good, they remind me humility is always in order for in this life, we see through a glass darkly and we cannot know the whole truth of our circumstances or the motives of those who oppose us. i thank them all for bringing me closer to god and the eternal wisdom without which a president cannot serve. [applause] i would like to say a special word of thanks to senator dole, and i ask you to join me in applause for his lifetime of service to the united states. [applause] i think jack kemp for his service to america and his devotion to the proposition this
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is a country in which everyone should have a chance to live free and equal and have a chance at success. but i had a good business with senator dole not too long before he went out to speak. i thank him for his love of country, his years of service. i applaud the campaign he fought so bravely to the very last minute. i wish him well and godspeed. four years ago, on these very steps, we set forth on a journey to change the course of america for the better. to keep america the world's strongest force for freedom and prosperity, to come together as
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one american community. the time was one of widespread frustration and doubt about our economic and social problems and our ability to deal vast sweep of change that was all around us. though they were threatening to many, our values seem to be under attack on all sides. together, you and i vowed to turn our country around. opportunity for all, responsibility from all, and american community of all americans. we have worked hard and i accept to end the politics of who is to blame and asked instead what are we going to do to make america better? it is a common ground on which we have made our promise.
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our economy is stronger, our streets are safer, the world is more secure and thank god our nation is more united. to all the men and women across this country who created our jobs and kept america safe throughout our whirled, i would say american success is your success. his victory is your victory. a thank you from the bottom of my heart. now, my fellow americans, a vast new century lies before us. it should be a time for people to -- for more people to live out their dreams than any time in human history. we commit this time to doing what we do in the 21st century
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and to give all of those the america they deserve and their children and their children's children. but we have work to do. we have work to do to keep our economy growing steady and strong by balancing the budget. our duty to pass on to our children the earth that god gave us. we have work to do to give them the gift of an education to make sure every 12-year-old can log on to the internet and everyone is willing to work for it and could have a college education. we have work to do. to make the underclass in this country a thing of the past and left our citizens to the pride and dignity of work. we have work to do to strengthen our families, help our parents
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succeed at home, keep our children safe from harm in their schools and communities. to clean up our environment so our children grow up next to parks and not poison and tell them drugs are wrong and illegal and they can kill them. to teach them right from wrong. my fellow americans, i will do all i can to advance these causes but all of our citizens must do their part to continue the upsurge of personal responsibility that has brought crime to 810-year low and child support collection to an all- time high and reduce the welfare rolls. will you help me do that? we must do it together. we must make our democracy stronger by enacting real, bi- partisan campaign finance reform. talk is no longer enough.
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we should act and act now. the american people will be watching debt to see who is not just going to talk, but to act. i am willing to act and i ask others to join me. we must keep america the world's most indispensable nation, finishing the unfinished business of the cold war, meeting new threats to our security through terrorism and the proliferation of dangerous weapons and seizing these extraordinary opportunities to extend our values of peace and democracy and prosperity. every american here tonight and every american within the sound of my voice can take pride in the fact that in these last two years, for the first time and all of human history, a majority of human beings live under democracies where the people rule.
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the challenges we face, they're not democratic or republican challenges, they are american challenges. what we know from the budget battles of the last two years and the remarkable success of the last few weeks of this congress is the lesson we have learned for the last 220 years. what we have achieved as americans of lasting good, we have achieved by working together. let me say to the leaders of my democratic party and the leaders of the republican party, it is time to put the country at a party. we do not know the final outcome of the congressional elections, but we know this -- the races are close, the american people have been closely divided, the congress, whatever happens, will be closely divided. they are sending us a message -- work together, meet our challenges, put aside the
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politics of division and build american communities together. [applause] on this beautiful night, when we have shared so much joy and so much music and so much laughter and so much pride, it is hard for me to believe that it was 23 years ago when i first began to go to the people of arkansas to ask for their support. the most lasting and important thing i have learned in all of those 23 fleeting years is this -- when we are divided, we defeat ourselves. but when we join our hands and pulled our families and our communities and country, america always wins. what we need to do is do the work of americans the way we seek to do the work of raising
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our children and by supporting our religious and community institutions. if we would simply be americans, the way we seek to live and all of our other roles, there is no stopping america. our best days are still ahead. [applause] and so i say when we look into our hearts and simply ask what is right for the american people, when we set aside our differences and build on our shared values of faith, family and work and roll our sleeves and work together, america always wins. america is going to keep winning the next four years. [applause] let me say that as all of you hear from my native state know,
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i believe this and i have tried to live by at because there is no person in america that has been given more gifts than i have. there is no person in america tonight that deals more humble in the face of this victory than i do. 50 years ago, when i was born in a summer storm to a widowed mother and a small town in the southwest part of our state, it was unimaginable that someone like me could have ever become president of the greatest country in human history. it has been for me a remarkable journey. not free of failure, but full of adventure and wonder and grace. i have worked hard to serve, but i did not get here on my own. every step along the way for these 23 years of long before,
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there was a teacher, a doctor, a neighbor, a parent, friend, a wife, a daughter always had time to care and who never gave up. i got here tonight because my fellow americans gave me a chance. our people have to give them the tools, not a guarantee, but that real chance to live up to their god-given potential. i ask you to join me in that commitment. every child deserves the chance i was given. [applause] and so i say, let's resolve to run this country the way we run our lives, whether you are the
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party of thomas jefferson are the commerce -- party of abraham lincoln. whether you are an independent or unaffiliated, we live in the greatest country to which much has been given a much is still expected. we should be bringing that bridge to the 21st century. tonight was a night of july. for the 53rd time in our history, our people have made their quiet and deliberate decisions. they have come together with their powerful voice and expressed their will. tonight, we celebrate the miracle of america. tomorrow, we greet the dawn and began our work and you. i am more grateful than i can say. you have given me an opportunity and responsibility that comes to few people. i will do my best and together,
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we will build the bridge to the 21st century. thank you and good night and god bless america. thank you. [applause] >> pulled in the commonwealth of virginia opened at 6:00. it will close at 7:00. here is a look at fire station no. 10, one of the many polling places. it looks like the video is a
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frozen up. we have had our cameras out all day covering polling places around the state. taking a look at some of the reporters covering the campaign -- from cbs in new jersey reporting mitt romney, wheels down in pittsburgh -- his final stop before getting back to boston she also corrects an earlier tweet from paul ryan say he is running on fumes. democratic headquarters in seattle has been broken into and nancy pelosi's home was burglarized. that is from the hill. we're speaking with political and campaign reporters to get their take on election 2012. >> i am looking at nine states right now we think are too close to call. five are held by democrats. i'm looking at states like connecticut, montana, north
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dakota, virginia, and wisconsin. i'm looking at republican seats in massachusetts, nevada, indiana and arizona. these nine races will tell the story. >> what makes this so special? >> those are all races with a margin of error. they're all very, very close. in fact, i'm not sure we're going to know the answer on tuesday night. we may be looking at wednesday or thursday before we know for sure. >> is there one race that stands out to you that could tell the future of the senate? >> probably montana, but it will be erase we will know early. one is out west, the polls closed late. the races can be very close and we may not know the answer on election night. right now, senator john tester is the most vulnerable democrat incumbent.
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that would tell us something. we're also looking at places like virginia where we have thought as the presidential race goes, so does the senate race. that has been testing the theory we have had for about a year- and-a-half. those are the kinds of things we will be watching -- we will see if democrats can actually win a senate seat, especially after the republican nominee there had a really bad last two weeks ever since comments he made about his position on abortion as it relates to rape. >> is there any thing you would see as a prize? >> i think we see some races we have seen polling that is all over the place, but, for example, in pennsylvania, senator bob casey, a democrat, were he to lose, that would be an enormous upset.
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it would certainly help republicans on their path to a majority. we will be looking at ohio in this regard where we have seen some polls with the democratic senator with a decent lead in the high single digits but we've also seen other polls that show the race very, very close. if he were to lose, we would consider that something of an upset. >> a couple of new questions on our facebook page -- asking if you voted today and who you voted for. in the polls so far, -- there are other candidates listed as well. go to our facebook page. watch the results in the presidential race and the governor's and house and senate contest across the country. we'll have live coverage of the
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victory and concession speeches and focus on some of the key and competitive senate races and get your reaction throughout the night by phone, e-mail, facebook and twittered. live coverage starts tonight at 8:00 eastern. >> i watch the morning journal and i like the give-and-take there and the balanced approach. i also like to hear the callers. some of them are unusual to say the least. some of them are thought- provoking. c-span is everywhere. it is that every event, a small hearings, public policy because downtown -- c-span just seems to be there. >> c-span -- created by american of cable companies in 1979 and brought to you as a public- service by your television provider.
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>> vice-president joe biden has arrived. president obama has been playing basketball, and election day tradition with him. mitt romney is wrapping up his last campaign stop before heading to watch tonight's result in boston. it is possible for one can't it to win the vote -- the popular vote and one to win the electoral college. we have a discussion about that. >> good evening. welcome to the david library of the american revolution. we are a primary source library dedicated study of american history. we promote interest in this area -- we award fellowships to advanced scholars and keeping --
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we invite you to learn more about the library of the revolution by visiting our web site. tonight, we've launched hour lecture series, the making of the american presidency with a talk by rate raphael. he is a new yorker by birth who headed west the day after he graduated from high school. he was active in the civil rights movement in the '60s and '70s and homesteaded in the hills of northwest california where he and his wife raised their two sons. he talked at a comprehensive one room high-school in his home among the redwoods as well as evening courses at the local community college and began writing about local history and contemporary issues. he is a prolific writer who has ridden number of books about a
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range of topics. he has focused in recent years on the american revolution and our nation's founding with all its historical, philosophical and political implications. his latest book is "mr. president -- how and why the founders created a chief executive. it is my pleasure to welcome back to the davis library, ray raphael. [applause] >> thank you. it's a pleasure to be at the david library with a full crowd of real history people. we are going to be talking today not about ancient history but contemporary history. basically, the history of the founding and how it affects us today. let me start by noting americans
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engage every four years in to a very unique rituals. one in october, and we are about to start in the first ritual, which are to individual contestants are selected to engage in single combat while tens of millions of people watched on tv to determine the fate of the nation. about half the nation firmly determined if their side loses, the nation is to ruins and of their side wins, all is well. about 2% of the people might be watching might have some interest in actually figuring out which of the two contestants say prefer. that is one of our rituals. it is highly partisan and we will talk tonight about the very origins of that partisanship. the other ritual we will talk about is every four years in october, american's first try to understand this very bizarre institution called the electoral
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college and whether they understand it or not, they complain about it. that is the second ritual. the format we are going to use is a very chronological one. we are going to start at the beginning of what is known now as the constitutional convention, but i'm going to call of the federal convention because that is what people call it at the time. they did not know there would be a constitution. the federal convention, we will start at the beginning and imagine ourselves there. is may 29 and edmund randolph presents the virginia plan which is the working draft of the constitution. part of the plan is for the formation of an executive department. this is a unique event because there never was an executive department under the articles of confederation or continental
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congress. all executive matter for just handled by congress. eventually, that got to be very cumbersome and congress selected three people to serve as department heads at what we would call cabinet departments and they would engage in these activities. the president of congress was simply the president, the presiding officer. john hancock and several others were president of the congress but all they did was sign their names and that big signature that we all do -- sign your john hancock here. that is what they did, engagingly correspondent and all decisions are made by congress. this is something new because the virginia plan said let there be an executive department and this is all they said about it. it will be an executive and they don't say whether it's one or several in the virginia plan.
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that person or persons will serve a single term and is ineligible for reelection answer for blank number of years and receive a fixed salary. and basically execute whatever needs to be executed. that was it. it was the beginning of the presidency. there are two big questions there. one or many? a single executive for many? it may seem obvious to us how could you have multiple executives. that was certainly conceivable to them. the only thing they had tried work multiple executives appointed directly by congress and answerable to congress with their department heads. they did not know what was happening, said james wilson, a delegate from pennsylvania, stands up and says i move there be a single executive.
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we have just mimic the constitutional convention. that is exactly what happened. for the first and only time at that convention, a dead silence. finally, ben franklin as don't you think we should say something about this before we vote? it is a matter of considerable importance and sure enough, it was. the reason was such silence is because what a huge issue. is in a single executive like a king? do we really want to go that route? all of the people there had been born under a marquee and on some level embraced it but then rejected it during the revolution. during the revolutionary years, it was all by committee and people wanted to be as far away as possible. when a single executive be too close to a market? they were considering it.
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they did decide that they wanted the is a number of years to be seven and they decided another thing. he was elected by congress, so how would he be dis-elected? they said he should be able to be imprecise -- people to be impeached for malpractice and neglected duty. any of us could id beach ourselves or anyone else with that criteria. but there is one other item the virginia plan, the virginia delegates had not considered. that is this thing about elected by congress. james wilson stood up and said i don't think it should be selected by congress. if it is selected by congress,
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it is dependent on congress and i thought we were trying to get an independent executive, otherwise they will be susceptible to political manipulation. i think he should be elected by the people. a rousing round of disapproval. he gathers the voting by state delegation. all of the other states about him down. so much for that idea. this is on the first actual debating bill. but he is disappointed and goes to sleep at night and a first item of business the next morning as he says i think i've got the idea. you don't want congress, you don't want people, how about we select special selectors by district and they will gather and let the president. the rest of the convention
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delegates looked at each other and said that -- i don't get it. again, only two states, they don't discuss it and is dismissed. that is the genesis on june 2 of that idea. it is what we now call the electoral college. on june 4, they stopped the debate and they have a single executive. serving a single seven year term and removal by malpractice or neglect of duty. they also determine he has a veto that can be overridden. what are his powers? not stated. to execute the laws and do anything else congress want him to do. so who is first in line?
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obviously congress is totally in charge. now we fast forward through the great debates and go six weeks ford to mid july. the issue comes up again. this time, once again, james wilson and a cohort of his who was actually from new york but was serving as a delegate from pennsylvania. his family was the lord of the present day bronx. this fellow was a well-to-do. his family basically owned the bronx. but they tried to introduce this theme again and once again, they only get two states. they say how about we try the electors theme again. they are little more specific.
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we suggest the president be chosen by a lack doors who are themselves chosen by the state legislature. not a whole lot of interest, but then morris takes the floor -- let me take -- lycee a word about how james wilson is supporting it. but they really want are popular elections by the people because that would really get a check on congress. they have this concept that congress -- they know there are going to be to branches and most of the delegates seemed to think they will be democratic and the lower branch will represent the people and the upper branch will represent the wellborn. they have checks and balances between them and there will be
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political squabbles. they want somebody over and above that. somehow, there are immune to intrigue and all of that political hanky-panky that goes along. they say he has to be free of conflict. he cannot be chosen by congress. particularly if he is chosen by them and they can get rid of him at any moment. he says you have to look at all picture -- these issues are connected. if congress chooses the president, that is why you have to have a one-term president. if he is chosen by congress and congress is to reach use and reuse them, the president has to court congress. how can he be independent? you have to have a non- repeatable president. i'm using the term president
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prematurely. they just call him the executive now. if he is non-repeatable, the term has to be reasonably long period they stipulated this idea of seven years. you only have three years. said that not enough time. you can have congress in charge this way or you can have a whole other system. once again, the executive is not independent of congress. how about if the people elect them? he gives a strong argument. if the people elect him often, every two years, then you don't even need an impeachment procedure. that people will be the ones to impeach him every two years. i see a lot of heads nodding in
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people think that is a good idea. suddenly, you have a short term, repeatable presidency with the people who are serving. to understand how radical this concept is, you have to understand whomorris was the soe lord'. in the american revolution, there was a lot of huge crowds of ordinary people really propelled to the fervor. he was observing one of these events were the patriots were swarming over the resistance. he donned a balcony looking down. this is the guy he was going to say a elected by the people every two years. this is his initial idea for the
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people are. "these sheets cannot be called as here to four. the head of the ability grows dangerous to the gentry and how to keep them down is the question. the mob and begins to think and reason. pour reptiles. they are struggling to cast off their winter. they basked in the sunshine. err noon they will bite." that is 13 years earlier. later he turns to that kind of attitude. the logic of this situation has driven him to the idea that maybe he should decide. james wilson is also likely, there is a place called for
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wilson in philadelphia. that is james wilson's house. in 1979 there was a crowd of very angry people because the rises of the prices of bread. there are going to the you rich. once again, a very unlikely populace. the logic led them there. logic did not produce the votes. the suspicion a popular election was so great that they cannot overcome it. george mason has perhaps the single line. "for the people who elect the president, it is like referring to the trial of callers to a blind man -- colors to a blind man." if the people cannot do it, what
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do they do? they reintroduced the idea of the electorate. it passes this time. they make the president repeatable. a short in his term from seven years to six years. there was blesses into ris' logic.or it went through for four days. who gets how many electors? this started squabbling over that perio. the president, a single seven near term, appointed by congress and removable by congress. that is its. matter over. seemingly.
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between july 19 and july 23, we had an electric college. we have presidential electors. the reedbird entirely to the old vote. -- a return entirely to the zero vote. james olson says he is not happy to this. you do not want the people. what do you do? the problem with being elected by congress is the president can politick with in congress. what if he doesn't know who will make the decision? choose people from each house by anyone canore politick them, they get together and choose the president. wow. gouverneur morris who is just a atician that soundsa
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like a reasonable idea. nobody else did. it was just the two of them. that idea got nowhere. that brings us up to the midpoint of the convention. it is now the end of july. they appoint a committee to actually fleshed out the office of the presidency. this is where we get the first draft of the fall constitution. it is called the committee detail report and is issued on august 6. this is where the president get named to the president. it means presiding officer. a governor is somebody who government something strong. they were able to stand
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mediator. it was the old met nonpartisan force. we had this, if it stood, we would now be entering the last year of nancy pelosi seven year term as president. that is not what happens. the time is wearing on and on. gouverneur morris is not happy with this. the president get stronger. he tries to get the treaty making powers reassigned from the senate to the president. they are so fearful of the strong executive that this is it for the senate.
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one more time me tries popular election. it failed. they say how about electors chosen by the people? he gets a 6-5 vote. how about just the abstract question? everybody is puzzled. only four states vote on one. massachusetts does not know the abstract vote. even if it fails, this is passed in the negative. it is a done deal. the small states are not happy with congressional selection for other reasons.
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there is more congress people in the lower house determined by population. they say there to more questions to be cited. they reconsider the thing about the length of term and whether you can get it again. they say please but off the vote for another day. no reason why. the next day nobody says anything else. on august 31, this is the last day they will adjourn and put everything into this committee now we called the committee of remaining matters. they still have a few loose ends. the election of the president by congress was not a loose end. it have been determined three
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times. these were done deal. you needed a clear majority. plurality would not do. they needed an absolute majority. in case of a tie, the president and the senate would vote. they have the whole thing laid out. there were talking about what to do for the very first election. this gets reverted to the
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committee. he was talking about this abstract vote that actually failed. there was no basis for that. it was tied with this other issue about the years and repeat ability. and never got settled purposely. the whole package goes to committee. gouverneur morris is on the committee. then the committee gets to deliberating. september 4 they report out. it have been cited three times by a lack doors. an entire shakeup in committee
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bbehind closed doors. there are several references. even these unrelated issues like whether the senate can initiate money bills. it was reintroduced here as part of this complex web of negotiations. you're trying to satisfy all the interest. slave states have gotten extra votes. that will figure a lot. the whole thing is shaken up. the electoral college is very close to what we had today. we have people getting, first of all, it starts with hutus as the electorate.
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is it the people? not in the constitution. they can allow the people to do this or they can do it themselves. it is in their hands. those get together and choose to people to people. one is not in their home state. suddenly we need a vice president. we are 13 days before the end. they have been meeting for 3.5 months. they were so sick of it.
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now we suddenly have a vice president. what does he do? i do not know. let's make him president of the senate's and in case of a tie vote he ties. when dick cheney said at match a part of a legislative department, it had a that was right. that is the only thing that is written into his office. they get together in separate places. they meet in their separate states. they meet in their separate states and all on the same date bay bay cast their votes for president and vice-president. if there is a clear majority,
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the majority of votes cast. if a majority of electors think only one vote, that person is president. if not to goes into a runoff in the senate. this is the committee report. the senate chooses from among five candidates. what runoff have you broken. i think the senate will choose the president. how often do you have a majority? when this report comes out, it is so shocking this is a very dry language.
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it leads to a particular explanation and discussion. why are you doing this? morris comes forward with his reasons and those that the committee. he said this is all to avoid injury. this week there would be no politics. shortly there after, hamilton, when the right an essay to that effect. he says there is no better way than this. we basically solved the issue. we have actually solved the issue.
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they have not solved the issue. does this really saw the issue of? if you vote -- if you elect the electors and then there is a five week span before the meet and these people are somehow many nice -- them immunized, they're about to vote for the president. iny're going to vote different places. there are going to vote of the same moment where nobody can possibly pressure them. that is not hanging sure logically. it isn't possible to exert political pressure if you're not in the same position? he would think the great framers may have asked that question. it is a difficult question to ask. nobody raised that possibility.
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they continue to debate the committee report. the only thing they debated on the choice of the presidency was whether the bon mot should be in the house or senate. they finally did a senate. they said that's to buy state delegation. nobody challenged the big system. they said this works. when it goes up for ratification, people start wondering is this really the best system. the opponent is wondering this.
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an extraordinary refinement on the simple business of an election and which the grant convention have the honor of being the first and mentors. this.could seek this what did they come up with this wild scheme? the argument that congress cannot select the president was found. it is pretty much irrefutable. what is the alternative. popular election. they did not want to go there is so extremely that they said we need some other way. it might not be a perfect system.
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this is not any of the others. hamilton said it makes it immune to entry. now we are going to forward a little bit to the first presidential election. you vote for two members. hamilton starts to worry. he says what if somebody really does not like washington, like their son got over look for a promotion does not want them to be president. he had already anointed adams as this. what if everybody beauts for adams but a few disgruntled souls withdraw their vote. adams will swing through the presidency. he writes letters to people in six of the 11 states saying that
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we need to throw away seven or eight votes for adam. isn't he the guy that said there is no entry and somehow it is the care -- cure? how could they have deluded themselves that's part of is that they're tired. their intuitive definition is people whispering in the corridors of european courts. they do not even entertain the notion that injury can happen through the mail and that political interest might develop and people might focus around people. this is not occur to them. they do not ask the hard question.
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i'm going to go to the powers of the presidency. they have mushroomed. now he is in charge of the treaty making. he is getting more power. they are trying to avoid what we now call cabinet divisions. this is not say anything about it. then someone says if the senate is needed to approve , if you
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disapprove the senate must do it too. other people say if you do that then what will happen is someone who doesn't want to be removed will court people in the senate. then you have some fights that will develop. presence will come and go. meanwhile you have the same secretary of treasury running the show. arguments are on both sides. the rhetoric went up. the whole history of the human race depends on this position. liberty in america is at stake. eventually, the matter is decided on a tie vote of the senate of which john adams breaks the tie. that is why the president can
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remove people, because of that thing. there's so many unanswered things. there's the national bank. there is who negotiates treaties and his sets porn policy -- sets foreign-policy. they say how come you get to do that? later on, the house says we should approve this treaty, too. it involves commercial matters. that gets disputed. then the house says the president can send us some papers. the presence as i claim presidential privilege. they said power for the presence stars to congeal. washington himself is try not to be political. he believes in the transcendent
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presidency. it is so hard to achieve. it gets involved with for policy and whether you favor england or france. you have really the genesis of two political parties. here is the interesting thing. washington is going to step down. he was the unanimous choice for the first president. now we have the first contested presidency. how is this going to work? the electorate is just going to go off? but was actually going to appoint the electorate? will the state legislatures do it? some state could go anyway. i think john smith over an
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albany he is a pretty good guy. it is not really happen that way. they would get together. because they were so smart and wise and had the good of their country, they will get the best people. because they have the best mind, they would come together and exercise their best discretion and say here is the wisest men of all. this is an unmatchable concept when the new there were all going to vote for washington. now what do they do? they realize that the powers of the presidency have expanded so great that no program can succeed unless your side has the
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presidency. as you start to get these two parties forming, leave the presidency -- suddenly the presidency becomes a must win situation. you get this zero sum game. you have to win or lose. the parties coalesce. the idea was for the presidency to transcend partisanship. somehow the institution is now a catalyst for the formation of national political parties. the kind of neutralize each other. it did not work like that. what happened was the naturalization of politics fostered the two national parties. suddenly, you have people
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basically nominating candidates. now the federalists nominate adams and thomas from south carolina. they need regional balance. hamilton said to throw away your vote on adams. now they're all worried that a few southerners are going to not vote for john adams and then thomas jefferson would get to be present. he writes a letter. do not throw away any votes. we need them all. he is hoping that some of the southerners will not vote for adams. south carolina was up for grabs. they could get more vote than adams. he is really doing it.
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as it turned out, adams did just squeaked through. too many people did a thorough way the vote. he was trying to get the new orders to stay firm and they did not. jefferson was vice-president. we had one party president and one vice president. there was a brief honeymoon and then jefferson and adams quickly get to fight scene. there's a story jefferson tells that they're walking down fitts street and started arguing. they went their separate ways, and that was the last time they communicated, too much into the administration. see if this sounds familiar. this is 1797.
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jefferson is going to write about the state of things in the capital. the passions are too high at present. you and i have formally seen warm debates. gentlemen of their from politics within speak to each other and separate the business of the senate from that of society. it is not so now. minuet been in some across the street to avoid meeting in turn their heads and other ways, lest they should be obliged to touch their hats. this should do for young man whose passion is and enjoyment. tranquillity is the old man's notebook. not only despite but because of the creation of the presidency. you have this ironic twist of history where it is almost like
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the founders, they were trying to do their best. they did not thoroughly examined the issues. they did not have an idea of how the partisanship would play out. you could fault them for not asking tough questions. these were tough questions. their idea was to create something that they feared. instead, they fostered. this is the oedipus story. this is also on a grander scale. it is hal human beings can create something and through the strange ways of traditional and constitutional law, you are just stuck with that.
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when he think about what an elector is, who is an elected or today? is he a wise person that exercises individual discretion? quite the opposite. you choose the most loyal people who would never possibly waiver. do you vote for romney or obama in? and technically you never even know your electors. a slate of electors pledged to candidates. the entire twist on that. this comes to an absolute head in the election of the 1800's. a lot of with the manipulation of the electors is so great that nobody wants to their way a vote
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any more. they wound up with identical tallies. suddenly you have to face a runoff in the house. in the house cut the opponents of jefferson do anything to get this out of there. we finally decided. they solve this problem of voting for two. now you distinguish between president and vice-president city will not have the thing that hamilton was trying to call. when he first started to do it, to shortly after he wrote how it was a perfect system, he says
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everybody knows of that defect in the constitution which allows you to vote for to candidates. he said because i think the other guys are going to play it, i am curious how we should. the gaming the system. now we do not do to electors. we still are stuck with this idea that the electors choose. even though the whole function flipped on its head, we still do it. that is the second message, how people can become trapped by our own transition. i'm going to close with a quote from an ardent festere. who is very much promoting the constitution after it was drafted.
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he right "the president of united states is elected. what is a capital improvements on the best government? it excludes the danger of faction in corruption." in 1800, he kept a personal copy of that as a. in 1800 during the debates when this is in congress and their trying the 35th ballot are something, he scribbled this proves how little dependence can be placed on theory. 12 years experience or four elections demonstrate the contrary. that is the end of my formal talks.
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>> any questions? >> out of curiosity, what was the original salary allocated to presidency? was this something people aspire to for financial gain? >> no. washington refused to take any. that started a president. ben franklin was very adamant that there should be no salary. they did make clear that whatever salary is cannot be augmented during the term. that was the first part of the virginia plan. i do not think salary was ever the issue. it was larger. whether people were were to capitalize on it for
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endorsements, that is a different question. everybody assumed that whoever was going to be running for the president will be well enough often not need the salary. they might need the power but not a lot of money. >> who is one elector's name? i wanted to know that for years and now i do not really care. >> i do not know a single electors' named either. does anyone ta?
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such mythic people. they're just figment of somebody's imagination. this much i promise you. after they get together in each state in the winning electors get together, i promise you they have a good time that evening. >> can we did have -- how do we get from having to electors to the multistate? >> let me clarify back. the amount of electors, i'm sorry i lost this over, the number of electors was still the issue, the allocation, each state would get.
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the allocation has not been changed. the allocation from the beginning tonight2 now is to hae total number of the people in your state. every state has at least three. california has 45. it will change every decade. something in the order of 45. when you see the battleground state and all that stuff, that legally has not been changed. it is only the growth of congress that has changed it. there's usually no distinguishing. it was just the top candidate and the second was vice president.
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it a few federalist to not vote for adam, the people following hamilton says it adams when he will have gotten there on his own. within the founding generation back is the fundamental premise was destroyed. it was a much magnified scale. we know the power of media and money and politics have transformed what was initially a defect of the constitution. this was almost a curse.
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it is certainly not what the founders envisioned and hoped for. let's try to get a president who can keep this whole thing in check. as we have said, it has not turned up that way. >> this is part of our ritual we do for every four years. every four years people get interested in the constitutional amendment possibility. most people think certainly we can do something about this. my personal opinion, i am not speaking as an expert. i'm speaking as much political mind. my suspicion is that to get a
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constitutional amendment passed you need 3/4 of the state legislators to approve. i am thinking he would not want a change in the system? i would assume the we keep the power that they have to themselves. they are not going to relinquish that. my guess is that the smaller states like wyoming have an equalstate -- =an say, . they have one guy in congress. now they have three. i do not see its.
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can you conceive of something of that magnitude being sponsored by one political party? >> what are the formalities of each of them voting for washington? is anything left? >> are there any records? >> yes. >> i do not think we have a formal record at the state level. what you have is the report to the senate.
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they report to the president of the senate. the delegation from each state when the congress convenes reports to the senate what their results were. that is what we have. if we do have a comic it to be in be documentary history of the first federal elections. >> james wilson was a big proponent of an independent
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presidency from the start. he was drafting the constitution in the committee. is he primarily responsibility for the greater strength of the presidency or electoral college? >> no. that is an excellent question. the question was james wilson was one of only five members of the committee of detail. since we know he wanted popular election and he wanted a stronger presidency, was he responsible for the greater powers of the president? the answer is a resounding no. out of the committee of detail, the senate still have the powers of the treaty and appointment. the committee of detailed and not change that. nancy pelosi is still president according to james wilson.
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in the five person committee of detail he did not have the vote. he wanted something like that. the committee of detail was charged with not changing matters but with flashing the not. one member from each state is that they were charged with not even fleshing things out, and just selling the last little screwball things. instead, they wrote the entire presidency, including the manner of selection and how long he served. he now has a vice-president. they rewrote the constitution.
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some of this stuff is a little too arcane to get into the narrative. that is what footnotes are for. that is a great question. people assume wilson must have done something. he was not able to do much. morris was in a larger committee. yet people within that committee to work more favorable -- he had more people with in that committee to work more favorably. >> initially, they were mostly of voices of the wilderness. increasingly they have more people on their site. when morris suggested to put for
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the electric system in mid-july, was a 6-5 vote. a lot of this was for political reasons. the small states are very involved. they are the ones that team up with the morris and wilson. that is part of the whole delicate negotiations. they got the run off. but it reverted to the senate. in of the change back to the house. they would not vote for it.
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a tide goes ae is lot. -- vote -- a tied vote. what is going to happen? somebody said in the electors cast their second ballot. that is not true. the electorate, one ballots only and they are done. that was the whole thing. they say these people cannot possibly be political because they serve for one day, cast their vote and disappear into the amorphous mass of the population. how could a person like that possibly be political? and never thinking that person has a lot of power. a lot of people will want to influence that power. who knows what can happen. particularly if they do not have to stand for reelection and they disappear? what it opportunity.
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let's say it is a tie vote. he goes to the house of representatives. i actually did this last round. i had like 11 scenarios in the 2008 elections that were somewhat by of all scenarios that produced a tie vote. then i said it could be in the house. i think there were 27. sometimes the delegation will be split 2-2. the democrats had something like a 27-22 edge in the house. it is not going to be like for 35 -- 300 something to 200 something. i imagine the republicans have the control. a tie vote now is going to mean
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that romney would win. the house is controlled. here and then there. your microphone is coming. it awaits you. >> was washington unanimously elected twice? >> yes. there is no contestant. >> over here? >> i went to high school and the bronx -- in of the bronx. morris high. we often talked about gouverneur more is to the school was named after. what happened to the morris family? >> i do not know the post-story
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of what happened to the family. i will tell you a little more about his later career. he went to france. interesting note here. morse wrote three constitutions. to is very influential in the new york state constitution. he spoke more often than anyone else and offered way more motions and very much manipulated the powers of the presidency. if you want to know why you have not heard that story, and the post script is an analysis of why he is not more recognize. partly it's because he's all over the map. two days before he voted for the popular election, he said we need a lifetime president. [applause] [laughter]
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it sounds weird but he cannot be dependent on congress. these are two different ways he said we cannot be depended on congress. one big reason that we do not know it is because people look at that and say what did he believe tha? it is what they said at the time of political contests. they said he is inconsistent. they just dismiss him. of the are not looking at the dynamics. to look at history you have to look at the dynamics, the context, not just what somebody believes. everybody flip-flops for different reasons. the third constitution is he wrote a french constitution. public ban ki-moon difference --
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he moved to france. they have huge investments in selling tobacco from virginia to france. he's over there. they appoint him minister of france during the revolution. right as the reign of terror coming -- is coming in appeared he wanted tarring aristocrat in his house. meanwhile, he right state constitution. -- he writes the constitution. it continues the existence of amr anarchy -- of a monarchy for executive power. that is the third constitution
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he wrote. then he eventually served in the senate again. i do not know the local history. if the as we almost any bit of history after 1810, forget about it. i'm still back then. i do it fast for from there to here. that is appeared in closing, there is a not from the founding era. that is what the peso-- why we play so close attention. thank you. [applause] >> here on c-span, we are like inside the wilson elementary school in arlington, va., one of the 2100 polling places across the commonwealth. statewide turnout will likely meet or exceed the 2008
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presidential election. >> officials are not seeing a lot of provisional balance being cast for not having profit -- proper identification. we will check back again later, reporting on the campaign trail. this is a tweet from rebecca kaplan st. paul ryan making his second campaign stop of the day
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in virginia. the run a charter is wheels up for boston. c-span has been talking the last couple of days with reporters and getting previews for their thoughts of how things will go on election night. >> i think what really this presidential election is how much has been spent in resources to speak to have narrowed a slice of the electorate. we are all looking at the same seven or eight states. of ohio obviously is going to be ing on election night. it is down to so few states. i think that is one of the things that has driven one of
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the unusual factors we have seen, the national polling and the pulling in the individual states has been so different. it is narrow on both sides. it is pointing as in completely different directions. >> are there any other races you're watching in particular? >> there's a lot of speculation as to whether there might be a surprise state that comes into play. whether it is michigan or minnesota are pennsylvania. one of the races i will be watching it just because i find it fascinating is the nebraska senate race between dead fisher and bob kerrey who is both a former senator and governor of the state. bob has really close the gap in
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recent weeks. it does look like it will be interesting. >> would anything surprise you coming out of an election night? >> the thing i will be really interested in seeing, if you look at the polls, it would suggest that we may see for the fifth time in the country's history an election in which the popular vote goes to one candidate and the electoral vote goes to another. if you throw on said that, which is a pretty polarizing event, at the possibility that wonder to state and up and recounts we could have a very interesting december. asking you did you vote today and to you voted for?
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log on and cast your vote. the maker comment at facebook .com/cspan. >> box watched life -- watch a live coverage of the election tonight. live coverage starts at 8:00 p.m. eastern. you can also access interactive maps and track state ballot initiatives. >> drop the day we have been bringing you past that in a concession speeches. the speech happen more than a month after election

Public Affairs
CSPAN November 6, 2012 1:00pm-5:00pm EST

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